Bulldozing Middle Footscray for the second time

Welcome to Buckley Street in Footscray: located near Middle Footscray station, it is on the south side of the railway line that links the Melbourne CBD to Sunshine.

This might look like any other Melbourne street, but the houses on the north side of Buckley Street have just been compulsorily acquired by the State Government, to make way for the new tracks of the Regional Rail Link project that will run past their backyards. Running a bulldozer through a suburb is normally an infrequent event, but not for this street: the current railway through Middle Footscray was built in just the same way.

Looking down Buckley Street, the entire left hand side will be bulldozed

It was all the way back in 1859 that the first train ran through Middle Footscray, when the initial section of the Melbourne-Bendigo railway was opened as far as Sunbury. Originally double track and running at ground level, the first passenger station at Middle Footscray was built in 1906 on the east side of Victoria Street, with suburban electric trains being introduced to the line in 1921. The below photo from the State Library of Victoria is dated 1927, and is taken between Victoria Street and Albert Street, looking towards Footscray.

How did I work out the exact location? The railway semaphore signal in the photo is labelled ’12C’, which is shown in the Footscray ‘C’ signalling diagram found in this history of the Footscray railways.

New station at Middle Footscray, 1927

Compared to the above photo, today’s railway is a completely different scene – so what happened in between?

Looking east towards Footscray and the Nicholson Street overbridge

A whole lot of digging, that’s what! (again, photo from the State Library).

Earthworks between Footscray and Middle Footscray stations, 1927

At the start of the 20th century railways were king for freight and passenger transport. In Victoria the hub of freight operations was Melbourne Yard, located on Footscray Road between Spencer Street Station and Victoria Dock, on what is now Melbourne Docklands and Etihad Stadium. From Melbourne Yard trains carrying all kinds of goods went to the furthest corners of the state, but before they could get there, they needed to escape the city.

With Melbourne ever growing, getting out of the suburbs became more difficult as the years went on, especially after the introduction of frequent suburban electric trains from 1919. A key choke point was Footscray station – junction of the lines from Geelong, Ballarat and Bendigo – it saw a huge chunk of Victoria’s rail traffic pass through on a single pair of tracks bound for Melbourne Yard (the exception being the lines from Gippsland and the north-east). Below is the view from the Hopkins Street bridge circa 1910, photo from Picture Victoria.

Footscray station circa 1910

To fix the congestion at Footscray, the Victorian Railways commenced construction of the South Kensington to West Footscray freight line in the 1920s, allowing goods trains to bypass the passenger station entirely. Running from the edge of Melbourne Yard at South Kensington, the new railway ran through the swamps of West Melbourne and across Dynon Road, crossing the Maribyrnong River on a steel truss bridge, and heading west under Footscray in a cut and cover tunnel beneath Bunbury Street.

At the other end of the tunnel major earthworks were required push the new tracks west through Footscray: the existing railway was sunk below ground level, with new overpasses at Nicholson Street and Albert Street enabling the removal of two level crossings. Here we are looking west from Nicholson Street towards Albert Street, with the new goods line tracks still to be laid (again, photo from the State Library).

Excavation through Footscray at Albert Street

By the time Middle Footscray was reached the railway was back at ground level, with the new tracks continuing a short distance further to Tottenham Yard (the massive collection of railway sidings in West Footscray) Along the way the original Middle Footscray station was replaced with the current station on the west side of Victoria Street, and the road sunk beneath the tracks to eliminate a third level crossing (cue yet another State Library of Victoria photo).

Victoria Street underpass, 1927

Fast forward 80 years and the scene at Victoria Street differs little, except the streets of Footscray are now leafier.

Victoria Street underpass looking south

So how many houses did the 1928 rebuilding of Middle Footscray require, and what benefits did it deliver?

For the first question, we can look at the MMBW Melbourne Sewerage Plans digitised by the State Library of Victoria: Middle Footscray is covered by detail plan 244 and 245, dated 1895. Victoria Street is to the right hand side of the plan, but the number of houses demolished for the railway expansion is inconclusive: despite the empty allotments beside the railway, the plan was produced 30 years before work started on the new tracks, so houses may have been built on them during that period.

MMBW detail plan #244, dated 1895. Victoria Street, Footscray

The benefits of the extra tracks are more clear cut. With freight trains running in the tunnel beneath Footscray, more room was available through the station itself for the operation of passenger trains. Melbourne’s west was undeveloped – the current growth corridors were still empty grasslands, and suburban trains ran only as far as Williamstown, Altona and St Albans – so the single track pair from Footscray station towards the city remained in place until a second pair was added in 1976.

V/Line Geelong approaches Footscray, a suburban train close behind on the parallel track

It has been in the past four decades that growth in the west of Melbourne has exploded,: since the 1970s the once deserted plains have been covered by the new housing estates of Hoppers Crossing, Werribee, Melton and Sunbury; with further growth at Taylors Lakes, Caroline Springs Deep Park, Tarneit and Point Cook filling in the gaps. At the same time the freight trains beneath Footscray have not stopped: Melbourne Yard might have been replaced by a football stadium in the 1990s, but the Port of Melbourne and the freight terminals on Dynon Road continue to serve Melbourne’s logistics needs.

Freight train enters the Bunbury Street Tunnel after crossing the Maribyrnong River

The latest strain on infrastructure has been the increased number of V/Line services entering Melbourne, with five consecutive years of patronage growth (source). The reasons given for the growth are varied: optimists attribute it to the success of the Regional Fast Rail project, which gave country Victoria the more comfortable VLocity trains, decreased travel times to Melbourne, and increased service frequencies. The more pessimistic say the growth from daily commuters who work in the CBD and live in new “dormitory” suburbs outside the regional centres, forced out of Melbourne by increasing house prices and encouraged to take V/Line trains by the politically driven 20% fare cut delivered by the Labour Government at the 2006 State Election (details here).

VLocity train bound for Melbourne at Deer Park

No matter what the reason for the growth: more trains than ever are trying to make their way through Footscray, and there are not enough tracks to handle them all. The Regional Rail Link project will build another track pair from Southern Cross Station west to Sunshine, and from there across to Werribee, providing a new route for V/Line services to Geelong, Ballarat and Bendigo to avoid Footscray, and freeing up space for additional suburban trains on the tracks already in place.

Unfortunately to build these new tracks, it has been decided to push the bulldozers through Middle Footscray for the second time in 90 years, but that is a story for another day.

Rear of 158 Buckley Street, the fence falling down

Further reading

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18 Responses to “Bulldozing Middle Footscray for the second time”

  1. […] Last week I told the story of how Melbourne’s Middle Footscray station came to be and why more tracks are needed – today we step into the future and look at what will be built […]

  2. andrew.waugh says:

    If you are interested in working out what was demolished in 1928, have a look at the Sands and McDougall’s directories for the period. Published annually, these list every property on every street and show the occupant and their occupation. Alternatively, you could look at the ratebooks for Footscray at PROV in VPRS 5462.

  3. Eden says:

    Great article – with great pics!

  4. […] in the late 1920s as part of a project to separate the passenger and freight trains that passed through Footscray, the Nicholson Street bridge replaced an existing level crossing, with the shops either side being […]

  5. […] cutting runs beneath Footscray, and dates back to the construction of the South Kensington to West Footscray railway in the 1920s, The second example is the cutting that heads west from Footscray – the shops along the […]

  6. […] few early grade separation projects were also carried out, such as the rebuilding of Middle Footscray station in 1928, which was provided with ramps for passenger […]

  7. […] And Middle Footscray – grade separated in 1928. […]

  8. […] track amplification now preferring pairs of tracks – Southern Cross to Sunshine as part of Regional Rail Link completed in 2015, and Caulfield and Dandenong at some indeterminate point in the […]

  9. […] with the construction of the South Kensington to West Footscray freight line. Two new tracks were built beneath Footscray, allowing goods trains to bypass busy passenger traffic on their way to the new railway yard at […]

  10. […] change is the number of tracks – the first photo from 2012 shows the four track alignment in place since 1976, the second photo from 2014 shows the six track corridor following the completion of Regional Rail […]

  11. […] was completed on the project in 1976, with track capacity between the City and Footscray expanded to six tracks in 2014 by the Regional Rail Link […]

  12. […] finally, four level crossings between Footscray and West Footscray were removed in 1926-28 in conjunction with track amplification works, including the Geelong Road […]

  13. Helen m says:

    Despite calls to convert them to open space these blocks are being built on again. As I go past I can see the townhouses closest to Geelong Road rising to three levels.
    Near Victoria Street there is a community garden; I hope it survives.

  14. […] the flawed bridge had another problem – it was in the way of the new Regional Rail Link tracks that were about to be built through Footscray, so the northern end had to be demolished – a […]

  15. […] originally opening in 1906, Middle Footscray was rebuilt in 1927 as part of works to provide a parallel goods line and grade separate Victoria Street. This Parliamentary report notes that the station was moved […]

  16. […] to widen the rail corridor towards Middle Footscray about to […]

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